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patterns(patterns期刊影响因子)

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原句1

When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers,small,tightly knit(联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other.

参考译文

在狩猎的时代,狩猎团队各自形成了自己的语言模式。

句式分析

整体分析:本句为复合句,从句用了被动语态,主句套有两个of结构。

1.When the world was still populated by hunter-gatherers为从句,用了被动句式。

2.small,tightly knit(联系)groups developed their own patterns of speech independent of each other为主句。两个of结构,都是介宾短语成为名词定语的具体体现。

重点词汇

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populated居住于( populate的过去式和过去分词 ); 生活于; 移民于; 落户于hunter-gatherers依靠狩猎和采集生活的人( hunter-gatherer的名词复数 )tightly紧紧地,坚固地,牢固地knit编织,; 接合; 使皱起,; 使紧密相联; 编织物groups集团; 群; 组( group的名词复数 );使成群,集合( group的第三人称单数 ); 分类patterns方式; 榜样( pattern的名词复数 ); 样品; 模仿( pattern的第三人称单数 )independent of不依赖…,独立于…原句2

In recent centuries, trade, industrialisation, the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades, all have caused many languages to disappear, and dominant languages such as English,Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

参考译文

近几个世纪以来,由于过去的几十年里贸易、工业化、发展 ,民族国家的发展和普及义务教育,特别是全球化和更好的交流,都导致了许多语言的消失。英语、西班牙语和汉语等主流语言越来越快的发展。

句式分析

整体分析:本句为并列句,句中套有多个修饰成分。

1.分句1all have caused many languages to disappear,

2.分句2 and dominant languages such as English,Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over.

3. In recent centuries为状语;trade, industrialisation;the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education和especially globalisation and better communications in the past few decades都是all的具体内容。

重点词汇

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industrialisation工业化nation-state单一民族国家compulsory education义务教育globalisation全球化,=globalizationdecades十年,十年间( decade的名词复数 )disappear不见,消失; 不复存在,灭绝dominant占优势的; 统治的主因,要素increasingly越来越多地; 日益,格外take over接管原句3

he median number (中位数) of speakers is mere 6,000, which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that.

参考译文

(仅几内亚一国就有超过800年的人口),(而)说话人的中的人数仅为6,000人,这意味着世界上有一半的语言是由比这更少的人说的。

句式分析

整体分析:本句为并列句,定语从句中有被动语态,介宾短语,宾语从句。

1.The median number(中位数) of speakers is mere 6,000为主句。

2.which means that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that为定语从句,which为引导词,其先行词为整个主句。从句套有宾语从句 that half the world’s languages are spoken by fewer people than that.在宾语从句中第一个that为连接词,第二个that代替language,为代词。

重点词汇

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median中间的; 中央的; 中值的; 中位数; 中线; 中值

number数量; 号码; 数字; 编号; 标号; 总计; 把…算作

mere纯粹的; 仅仅,只不过; 小的,轻微的; 小湖,池塘; 〈英〉边境

means mean的第三人称单数,意思是,意味着;而means为:办法,方法

(今完)

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